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unhistorical:

December 29, 1890: A massacre by U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment takes place near Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota.

The massacre at Wounded Knee was one of the last major conflicts of the American Indian Wars, taking place on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation of South Dakota. Just two weeks earlier, Lakota Sioux chief Sitting Bull was killed in a struggle against a group of policemen and volunteers (including his own brother-in-law) who had been ordered to arrest him to prevent him from using his influence to support the “Ghost Dance” movement, which was described by agents of the U.S. Indian Service as the “Messiah Craze”. Spotted Elk, another Lakota Sioux leader, was an enthusiastic devotee of this new movement that the American government tried desperately to suppress and outlaw. Spotted Elk and hundreds of his followers were intercepted and relocated by the 7th Cavalry Regiment on December 28, 1890 to Wounded Knee Creek, where the Lakota made camp. 

By the next morning, around 500 troops had surrounded Spotted Elk’s camp, made up of 350 Native Americans, around two-thirds of which were women and children.  As the 7th Cavalry searched the camp to confiscate any weapons, a scuffle broke out between one of the Lakota and the soldiers, which escalated into a “battle” that ended in around 300 Native American casualties, including 200 women and children killed. 31 soldiers ultimately died as well, although it is speculated that many had been killed by friendly fire, shot by the mounted Hotchkiss guns that had been placed around the camp. Fighting lasted less than an hour, but it was brutal, bloody, and cruel. According to the commanding general, Nelson Miles, “a large number of women and children who tried to escape by running and scattering over the prairie were hunted down and killed”. The 1891 report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs contained descriptions by surviving Lakota of the events of the massacre:

All the men who were in a bunch were killed right there, and those who escaped that first fire got into the ravine, and as they went along up the ravine for a long distance they were pursued on both sides by the soldiers and shot down, as the dead bodies showed afterwards….

There was a woman with an infant in her arms who was killed as she almost touched the flag of truce, and the women and children of course were strewn all along the circular village until they were dispatched. Right near the flag of truce a mother was shot down with her infant; the child not knowing that its mother was dead was still nursing, and that especially was a very sad sight. 

Spotted Elk himself (pictured above) was killed during the fight. Medals of Honor were awarded to twenty of the troopers who fought at Wounded Knee (listed here), some of them for, ironically, “extraordinary gallantry”, “distinguished conduct”, and “conspicuous bravery”. Like most of the conflicts of the Indian Wars, the Wounded Knee Massacre was often brushed over in popular history until the 1970s during a period of Native American activism, and after the release of the popular book Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee.

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snowyowlwhitecotton:

“Elizabeth Bad Roads-Schlall (Umatilla) and her husband, Francis Schlall (Paiute) on their Wedding Day - 1929”

snowyowlwhitecotton:

“Elizabeth Bad Roads-Schlall (Umatilla) and her husband, Francis Schlall (Paiute) on their Wedding Day - 1929”

(via snowyowlwhitecotton-deactivated)

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snowyowlwhitecotton:


“Navajo Women Outside Their Hogan 1893”

Whatever she’s weaving looks beautiful. I wonder if she ever thought that a little over a hundred years later, the White man would be stealing her designs and selling it as “tribal.” 

snowyowlwhitecotton:

“Navajo Women Outside Their Hogan 1893”

Whatever she’s weaving looks beautiful. I wonder if she ever thought that a little over a hundred years later, the White man would be stealing her designs and selling it as “tribal.” 

(via snowyowlwhitecotton-deactivated)

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snowyowlwhitecotton:


“Pawnee and Home”
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Race and Immigration in the 1930 Census

diasporadash:

Although some of the questions on the 1930 census illustrated twentieth-century optimism regarding the potential for science to explain society’s ills, others reveal the persistence of older racial views. For example, instructions to census enumerators explained that a person who had both “White and Negro blood was to be returned as a Negro, no matter how small the percentage of Negro blood.” This categorization of mixed race individuals as “Negro” based on the existence of any black ancestry reflected the bureau’s continued reliance on nineteenth-century racial categories.

By contrast, racial guidelines regarding Native Americans were less stringent. Enumerators were told that someone part Native American and part African American should be listed as “Negro” unless the Indian blood predominated and the person was “generally accepted as an Indian in the community.” Someone with both white and Native American ancestry was to be listed as “Indian,” unless the percentage of Indian blood was very small and the person was “regarded as White in the community.” Hence the bureau decreed that Native American ancestry did not preclude an individual from being “white,” while African American ancestry did. The instructions to enumerators thus reflected an acceptance of a racial hierarchy, with white at the top, black at the bottom, and Native Americans occupying a hazy area in the middle. READ MORE

Curated by Jateko Ashanti 

(via diasporadash)

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the thing is, people don’t lie to their kids about the holocaust of the jewish peoples by the nazis. How is it any harder to explain the holocaust of native people here in america to your kids?

adailyriot:

all i’m sayin is, the excuse is up.

tell the real history so we can move forward.

(via rematiration-deactivated2013111)

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knowledgeequalsblackpower:


Diana Fletcher was the daughter of a runaway slave who’d taken refuge with the Seminole Indians in Florida. He married a Seminole women, Diana’s mother, who died on The Trail of Tears. Diana attended the Hampton Institute in Virginia, a college originally opened for Black students and later opened to Native Americans, and maintained her Black Indian heritage despite pressure to repress it from American society.

(via “women in history”)

knowledgeequalsblackpower:

Diana Fletcher was the daughter of a runaway slave who’d taken refuge with the Seminole Indians in Florida. He married a Seminole women, Diana’s mother, who died on The Trail of Tears. Diana attended the Hampton Institute in Virginia, a college originally opened for Black students and later opened to Native Americans, and maintained her Black Indian heritage despite pressure to repress it from American society.

(via “women in history”)

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obsexxed:

happy thanksgiving…

obsexxed:

happy thanksgiving…

(Source: obsexxed, via knowledgeequalsblackpower)

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knowledgeequalsblackpower:







Edmonia Lewis
I first ran across Lewis in my research about race and Cleopatra (one of her marble sculptures depicts Cleopatra’s death).
Edmonia Lewis was a neoclassical Black and Native American sculptor. Her work often had Biblical themes or themes of freedom or of famous Americans including many abolitionists. She often depicted African, African-American, and Native American peoples in her work.
She described her father as “a full-blooded African” and gentleman’s servant and her mother as full-blooded Chippewa (Ojibwa). After years of much criticism concerning her work, she left America, stating,

“Instead of fooling here, with our people aping the prejudices of whites, I am going back to Italy, to do something for the race—something that will excite the admiration of the other races of the earth.”
(via jstor article.)

knowledgeequalsblackpower:

Edmonia Lewis

I first ran across Lewis in my research about race and Cleopatra (one of her marble sculptures depicts Cleopatra’s death).

Edmonia Lewis was a neoclassical Black and Native American sculptor. Her work often had Biblical themes or themes of freedom or of famous Americans including many abolitionists. She often depicted African, African-American, and Native American peoples in her work.

She described her father as “a full-blooded African” and gentleman’s servant and her mother as full-blooded Chippewa (Ojibwa). After years of much criticism concerning her work, she left America, stating,

“Instead of fooling here, with our people aping the prejudices of whites, I am going back to Italy, to do something for the race—something that will excite the admiration of the other races of the earth.”

(via jstor article.)

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