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beautiesofafrique:

African ethnic group of the week: The Khoisan people (Khoikhoi and San people) found in Botswana, Nambia and South Africa

The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are the languages of Africa that have click consonants but do not belong to other language families. For much of the 20th century they were thought to have a genealogical relationship with each other, but this is no longer accepted.

All Khoisan languages but two are indigenous to southern Africa, and belong to three language families, of which the Khoi family appears to have migrated to southern Africa not long before the Bantu expansion. Ethnically, their speakers are the Khoikhoi and the San . Two languages of east Africa, those of the Sandawe and Hadza, are also called Khoisan, although their speakers are ethnically neither Khoikhoi nor San.

Before the Bantu expansion, Khoisan languages, or languages like them, were likely spread throughout southern and eastern Africa. They are currently restricted to the Kalahari Desert, primarily in Namibia and Botswana, and to the Rift Valley in central Tanzania.

Khoisan is the name for several ethnic groups, that share some specific physical and linguistic characteristics. The word ‘Khoisan’ is used in a broader term to describe both the Khoikhoi as well as the San or ‘Bushmen’ as if they were one people sharing a common culture. These were, however, two distinct cultural groups. The Khoikhoi called themselves ‘the real people’ or Khoi-na, to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the San (SoaQua or SonQua), named Bushmen by the colonists. The San were smaller groups of hunter/gatherers who lived off the veld and had no cattle. The Khoikhoi, on the other hand, were nomadic herders who owned vast herds of cattle and sheep and lived in large groups based on an exogamous clan system. Exogamy entails choosing a marriage partner from a social group of which one is not a member, as such a marriage brings certain benefits by establishing alliances between the groups. It can also be regarded as necessary for the groups’ survival.

The Khoikhoi were originally part of a pastoral culture and language group found across Southern Africa. Originated in the northern area of modern Botswana, the ethnic group steadily migrated south, reaching the Cape approximately 2,000 years ago. Khoikhoi subgroups include the Korana of mid-South Africa, the Namaqua to the west, and the Khoikhoi in the south. Husbandry of sheep, goats and cattle provided a stable, balanced diet and allowed the related Khoikhoi peoples to live in larger groups than the region’s original inhabitants, the San.

Migratory Khoi bands living around what is today Cape Town intermarried with San. However the two groups remained culturally distinct as the Khoikhoi continued to graze livestock and the San subsisted as hunter-gatherers. The Khoi initially came into contact with European explorers and merchants in approximately AD 1500. The ongoing encounters were often violent. Local population dropped when the Khoi were exposed to smallpox by Europeans. Active warfare between the groups flared when the Dutch East India Company enclosed traditional grazing land for farms. Over the following century the Khoi were steadily driven off their land, which effectively ended traditional Khoikhoi life.

San Children have no social duties besides playing, and leisure is very important to San of all ages. Large amounts of time are spent in conversation, joking, music, and sacred dances. Women have a high status in San society, are greatly respected, and may be leaders of their own family groups. They make important family and group decisions and claim ownership of water holes and foraging areas. Women are mainly involved in the gathering of food, but may also take part in hunting. Traditionally, the San were an egalitarian society. Although they had hereditary chiefs, their authority was limited. The San made decisions among themselves by consensus, with women treated as relative equals. San economy was a gift economy, based on giving each other gifts regularly rather than on trading or purchasing goods and services.

Khoikhoi people

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The San people

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Read more/Sources: 1| 2| 3| 4

(via beautiesofafrique)

Tags: south africa
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dynamicafrica:

Lesotho Rocked by Gunfire, Claims of Attempted Military Coup.
It’s not often that this tiny landlocked Southern African country becomes a trending topic on Twitter or makes global headlines, but today was not any ordinary day.
On Saturday morning, media outlets began reporting that eyewitnesses had heard sounds of gunfire in the capital Maseru. It was also alleged, and now confirmed, that the country’s military had taken control of the kingdom’s police headquarters and jammed some of the country’s radio stations and telephone lines. So far, the military has not provided any statements to the media and the official news agency in the country, LENA, is yet to release any information.
In June this year, South Africa sent a “stern warning” to Lesotho concerning the rising instability in the country. This came following the suspension of the Lesotho’s parliament by the prime minister, with the king’s blessing, as the country’s coalition government was on the brink of collapse.
Currently in South Africa since Friday, Lesotho’s Prime Minister Tom Thabane has said that he plans to return to the country.
Independent since 1966, Lesotho has undergone several coups
The earliest known inhabitants of the country were the Khoisan who were colonized by the Sotho-Tswana people, know the ruling majority, between the third and 11th centuries.
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dynamicafrica:

Lesotho Rocked by Gunfire, Claims of Attempted Military Coup.

It’s not often that this tiny landlocked Southern African country becomes a trending topic on Twitter or makes global headlines, but today was not any ordinary day.

On Saturday morning, media outlets began reporting that eyewitnesses had heard sounds of gunfire in the capital Maseru. It was also alleged, and now confirmed, that the country’s military had taken control of the kingdom’s police headquarters and jammed some of the country’s radio stations and telephone lines. So far, the military has not provided any statements to the media and the official news agency in the country, LENA, is yet to release any information.

In June this year, South Africa sent a “stern warning” to Lesotho concerning the rising instability in the country. This came following the suspension of the Lesotho’s parliament by the prime minister, with the king’s blessing, as the country’s coalition government was on the brink of collapse.

Currently in South Africa since Friday, Lesotho’s Prime Minister Tom Thabane has said that he plans to return to the country.

Independent since 1966, Lesotho has undergone several coups

The earliest known inhabitants of the country were the Khoisan who were colonized by the Sotho-Tswana people, know the ruling majority, between the third and 11th centuries.

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dynamicafrica:

The iconic images that came to define the Soweto Uprising of June 16th, 1976.

This series of images depict scenes of a tragic moment that has come to symbolize this day in South African history.

As planned on June 16th, 1976, students from schools around Soweto began to gather and protest against a policy by the South African government that, through a system they called ‘Bantu Education’, that forced black students from the 7th grade onwards to be taught lessons in Afrikaans. Not only was this policy impractical as many students had little to no knowledge in Afrikaans which made learning subjects in high school difficult, Afrikaans was a language that symbolized oppression and the racist authority of the apartheid government.

Armed mostly with their new found confidence and attitudes of defiance cultivated by the Black Consciousness rhetoric sweeping the country, the students had planned that these protests would be a peaceful demonstration. The mass rally had been planned in secret by the Students formed an Action Committee (later known as the Soweto Students’ Representative Council) on June 13th, 1976, with student Teboho “Tsietsi” Mashinini as the main leader of the protests.

On the day, between 10, 000 - 50, 000 students began to make their way, as planned, to the Orlando Stadium in Soweto. Many of the participants were only notified of the rally on the day of the event. According to his sister, Antoinette Sithole, 13-year-old Hector Pieterson found himself there more out of curiosity out of anything else. Unfortunately, it was at this time that things began to take a violent turn. Police, who were heavily armed, began releasing their dogs on the crowds. But the crowd was large and many protestors overpowered the animals. After this, the police began to shoot into the crowd of unarmed students. One of the first causalities recorded on that day was the young Hector Pieterson.  

More and more victims were killed on that day, and one such individual was Dr. Melville Edelstein, a white social worker in Soweto who had devoted his life to providing healthcare to many in the area. Unfortunately, Dr. Edelstein was the “victim of the consequences of the apartheid system – a racist system which socialized South Africans to impulsively judge and respond to one another not as individuals with individual qualities, but according to a stereotypical image based solely on skin colour.”

Taken by South African photographer Sam Nzima, the first image was published in newspapers around the world the following day and has become one of the most iconic images of South African history.

(via stupiduglyfatcunt)

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descentintotyranny:

U.S. Apartheid Abuse Cases Against Ford, IBM Go Ahead
Apr. 18 2014
A federal judge on Thursday declined to toss out decade-old lawsuits that accuse IBM Corp. and Ford Motor Co. of supporting apartheid by letting their subsidiaries sell computers and cars to the South African government.
The three lawsuits seek to hold IBM and Ford responsible for race-based injustices including rape, torture and murder under apartheid, a system of race-based segregation and discrimination against nonwhites that ended 20 years ago.
The U.S. Supreme Court recently ruled on the legal reach of the statute under which the plaintiffs are suing, the Alien Tort Statute. The 1789 statute originally was enacted to prosecute pirates and was revived in recent decades to permit lawsuits in the United States against those who violate human rights abroad.
Thursday’s ruling from Judge Shira Scheindlin in Manhattan allows plaintiffs to file amended complaints that fit within the reach ruled upon by the Supreme Court.
Emails seeking comment from Armonk-based IBM and Dearborn, Michigan-based Ford weren’t immediately answered.
Close to 80 companies initially were named in the lawsuits, filed about 12 years ago, and the vast majority of those claims were rejected.
A district judge threw out the lawsuits in 2004, saying he did not have jurisdiction. He noted that Congress had supported and encouraged business investment in South Africa as a way to achieve greater respect for human rights and a reduction in poverty. And he cited vigorous objections to the lawsuits by the U.S. and its allies.
The U.S. had said the lawsuits posed a foreign policy problem, threatening to inflame U.S. relations with South Africa. The South African government had said the cases interfered with its rights to litigate such claims itself, though it later reversed its position.

descentintotyranny:

U.S. Apartheid Abuse Cases Against Ford, IBM Go Ahead

Apr. 18 2014

A federal judge on Thursday declined to toss out decade-old lawsuits that accuse IBM Corp. and Ford Motor Co. of supporting apartheid by letting their subsidiaries sell computers and cars to the South African government.

The three lawsuits seek to hold IBM and Ford responsible for race-based injustices including rape, torture and murder under apartheid, a system of race-based segregation and discrimination against nonwhites that ended 20 years ago.

The U.S. Supreme Court recently ruled on the legal reach of the statute under which the plaintiffs are suing, the Alien Tort Statute. The 1789 statute originally was enacted to prosecute pirates and was revived in recent decades to permit lawsuits in the United States against those who violate human rights abroad.

Thursday’s ruling from Judge Shira Scheindlin in Manhattan allows plaintiffs to file amended complaints that fit within the reach ruled upon by the Supreme Court.

Emails seeking comment from Armonk-based IBM and Dearborn, Michigan-based Ford weren’t immediately answered.

Close to 80 companies initially were named in the lawsuits, filed about 12 years ago, and the vast majority of those claims were rejected.

A district judge threw out the lawsuits in 2004, saying he did not have jurisdiction. He noted that Congress had supported and encouraged business investment in South Africa as a way to achieve greater respect for human rights and a reduction in poverty. And he cited vigorous objections to the lawsuits by the U.S. and its allies.

The U.S. had said the lawsuits posed a foreign policy problem, threatening to inflame U.S. relations with South Africa. The South African government had said the cases interfered with its rights to litigate such claims itself, though it later reversed its position.

Tags: south africa
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dynamicafrica:

Big Debate on Racism: Has the Rainbow Nation project failed in South Africa?

The tension in this debating arena is so thick, you’d need a chainsaw to cut through it and even so, you may not be able to slice through it. But all this comes as no surprise considering the topic of the conversation, as well as the time and place in which it is held.

Operating around the question: “Has the Rainbow Nation failed?”, South African hot topic debating program eNCA’s “The Big Debate South Africa" (a favourite of mine) hosts yet another riveting discussion on race relations in the "Rainbow Nation" 20 years after a democratic country was born. 

With a diverse panel and even more diverse audience members, the question yields a colourful array of responses. A multitude of topics and issues are raised throughout ranging from white privilege, white poverty, and the layered politics of power, to affirmative action, the exclusion or underrepresenation of coloured and Indian populations in South African internal race relations, the intersectionality of race, class and gender, and the failure of the broader reconciliation movement of the 90s.

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All Africa, All the time.

(via muzungus)

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readabookson:

https://anonfiles.com/file/b1d7fa088b1ff58597a69485cb87ab51

I really want to read this. Right before I went to South Africa in 2008, there were many xenophobic attacks against immigrants from neighboring African countries. 
For the most part, I never saw or encountered anything….  except for this one night. My friend Crystal took us out in Capetown (I think it was a “colored” club. Crystal is colored.. and I think everyone there was light-skinned and/or white looking) and this one group of people kept on bumping into me and our other American friends (my friends are dark skinned with locs/braids) and spilling drinks on us. Finally, Crystal confronts them and one bold bitch was like “Well tell your friends to go back to Zimbabwe!”
And Crystal was like “Bitch, they’re American!!!!!” She was like “oh…. “ 
-______-
Then, they slowly migrated away from us and left us alone.
That Western privilege, eh?  But I never understood why, even if we were from Zimbabwe, people would spill drinks on us. Like… why???? What were they trying to accomplish? Just trying to make someone feel unwelcomed I suppose.

readabookson:

https://anonfiles.com/file/b1d7fa088b1ff58597a69485cb87ab51

I really want to read this. Right before I went to South Africa in 2008, there were many xenophobic attacks against immigrants from neighboring African countries. 

For the most part, I never saw or encountered anything….  except for this one night. My friend Crystal took us out in Capetown (I think it was a “colored” club. Crystal is colored.. and I think everyone there was light-skinned and/or white looking) and this one group of people kept on bumping into me and our other American friends (my friends are dark skinned with locs/braids) and spilling drinks on us. Finally, Crystal confronts them and one bold bitch was like “Well tell your friends to go back to Zimbabwe!”

And Crystal was like “Bitch, they’re American!!!!!” She was like “oh…. “ 

-______-

Then, they slowly migrated away from us and left us alone.

That Western privilege, eh?  But I never understood why, even if we were from Zimbabwe, people would spill drinks on us. Like… why???? What were they trying to accomplish? Just trying to make someone feel unwelcomed I suppose.

Video

ethiopienne:

That Time Reagan Vetoed the Anti-Apartheid Act

As Vijay Prashad points out, many of the world’s leaders that are apparently mourning the death of Nelson Mandela were the “same people opposed [to] freedom in South Africa to the very end.” 

Although Ronald Reagan has passed away himself, one can imagine he might salute Mandela today. But as president, Reagan worked against Mandela, so much so that he vetoed the Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act in 1986. Believing that he knew what was best for black people living under apartheid in South Africa, Reagan opposed sanctions and wanted to maintain friendly relations with the white supremacist government.

South Africa’s Desmond Tutu disagreed. Watch this 1986 news report about Tutu’s visit to the White House, in which Tutu explains the way that Reagan failed black South Africans.

(via disciplesofmalcolm)

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Tags: SOUTH AFRICA
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iluvsouthernafrica:

Focus on the Mine Workers and Mining Industry of Southern Africa

Two books I highly recommend regarding the above topic.

1.  The Scramble for Africa - Thomas Pakenham

2.  The Randlords - Geoffrey Wheatcroft

Both books are well researched and incredibly thorough but very difficult to read in that they will break your heart whilst helping you see why Southern Africa is as it is.  More to come…

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femalerappers:

Queen Latifah ft. Monie Love - Ladies First

I dedicate this to those who think womanism is destroying the Black community.

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